Tuesday, 5 November 2019

Swimming Season Still not Over in Croatia in Early November!

Some people really do not want to check the calendar (or the website showing the sea temperatures), and consider every day to be swimming season!

When I was a kid growing up in Croatia, for my family (and many others) it was customary to go to the seaside for the May 1st holiday, and more often than not, the discussions revolved around whether it's going to be warm enough to take a swim in early May. But nobody ever, from what I can remember, talked about swimming in the sea for All Saints' Day.

These days, it seems like global warming and the increasingly rapid changes to the climate changed all of that, with people swimming in the Adriatic in November, and not even for a specific reason, but just because they enjoy it.

We posted a couple of days ago about the people in Split playing na male branke (a special local version of football) right by the sea, in their swimming apparel, but they were not in the sea, just close to it. That arguably makes it even worse, as it was quite windy at that point in Split.

Today, we bring you a photo from way up North, in Lovran, showcasing two gentlemen enjoying a nice, warm swim on November the 4th, some time in the early afternoon. The air temperature was somewhere around 16 °C, there wasn't much wind, and the sea temperature was around 19 °C, and as you can see in the photo, it was still quite wavy. The two entered the sea, took a brief swim, spoke to each other a bit while in there, taking their time, and then exited as if it was - August. Passers-by took some interest in them, as they were probably the only people in the Adriatic at that point without diving suits on.

And before you know it, the traditional New Year's Day swimming will happen all over Croatia, then Easter will come when the bravest people will probably venture out to say hello to the spring and summer by taking their first yearly swims... Before you know it, it will be swimming season all year long in Croatia, at least for some people!

Sunday, 8 September 2019

Faeces Seen from Space in Adriatic, Concerned Residents Report Pollution

As Morski writes on the 7th of September, 2019, it is unfortunately all but impossible to enumerate, let alone publish on a daily basis, the extremely worrying reports of cases of pollution across the Adriatic coast.

Morski, a Croatian portal dedicated to all things to do with the Adriatic, as its name would suggest to all those who understand Croatian, receives photos, videos, links, and anger on a daily basis from readers who have something to say about the level of pollution in the Croatian Adriatic, not to mention their entirely valid concerns about the future. The pollution in the Adriatic sea has tragically increased so much that some cases can easily be seen from space.

Negligence, omissions, insufficiently stringent regulations, a total lack of control and inspection, greed, ignorance... we could go on and on, and then on a bit more about the catastrophic state of the Adriatic sea which runs along the country which recently loved to boast about being the Mediterranean as it once was.

After every publication about some new pollution, there are also those who see the problem in others and will do almost anything to avoid taking even a tiny bit of the blame: "tourists'' of this or that nationality "are guilty", "cruisers (this type or that type)" are guilty, or of course, we journalists are the guilty ones for ''spreading a negative image of Croatia''. The list goes on.

Morski waited until September, after the height of the tourist season had passed, for conclusions, and the pictures speak volumes about the perpetrators and the local governments/self-government units that are doing nothing but sitting and just counting the money they earned from the tourist season, and all this sh*t is travelling to someone else anyway, right? No, not really.

Near Peroj in Istria, about four kilometres west of Fažana and north of the glorious Brijuni National Park, a large fecal ''stain'' can be seen in the sea, which is also shamefully visible on Google maps.

The Adriatic sea's currents are carrying this pollution directly towards the aforementioned national park. Allegedly, improvements are already being made to the wastewater treatment system in the agglomeration of Pula north, which includes the area of ​​the City of Pula and the municipality of Fažana among other locations, but the mayor of Vodnjan, whose jurisdiction also includes Peroj, failed to confirm any of that. Until then, Peroj sends the main image of this article out into the world and even beyond it, into space.

The Facebook group for Pag locals who live outside Pag (Pažani izvan Paga) posted a disgusting video of the sewage discharge at Paška vrata. The author wonders if this is a case of pure negligence or sabotage in what was then, the middle of the summer tourist season. The comments read that it stank to high heaven this summer. While some claim that this has been the main sewer discharge for the entire town of Pag since 2004, that there is a purifier, and that due to a malfunction or an increased inflow, not all of it goes below, but can come up above the surface, author Alan Šavar explains the situation:

''Like everywhere in the world, there are beautiful and less beautiful things in every place. I find that less beautiful things, such as robberies, crime or corruption, should be made public. Enough with pushing things under the rug! If we just turn a blind eye to such things and look for cheap excuses or justifications, then we'll get nowhere - neither as a society nor as a people.

And that's why I posted the video the instant I took it, because it's an ECOCIDE that has been going on in Pag bay for decades now,'' stated Šavar.

From old tends to toilet paper - everything could be found on the island of Vrnik near beautiful Korčula. A reader has stated the sparkling blue Adriatic sea is foaming, and not for the first time. Can anything be done to preserve this beautiful island? And when it comes to the garbage by the sea: plastic, bags, etc... let's not even begin,'' says the reader.

There is no fairytale to be had on Korčula itself, either. Unfortunately, this is not the first time that the dark stains of faecal matter and other pollution has appeared on the surface of the sea. Korčula's Julia Urban took a video and wrote:

"Some people tell me not to publish this, because it's about Korčula's reputation and the tourism from which many earn a living. I also make money from tourism and rent, and frankly, tourism is in the background. The health of us and our children is at the forefront and this problem is finally being addressed.

If we all remain silent and pretend that there's no problem, nobody will never try to solve it. For the sake of tourism and our reputation, should we sacrifice the health of ourselves and our children who swim in this sea? The answer is: No!''

Facebook/Julie Urban

From rubbish strewn along the coast, which has even prompted foreign tourists to come and spend time while on holiday cleaning up the beaches, to pollution in the beautiful Adriatic that can not only be seen from space but has also caused dangerous illnesses because of the presence of harmful bacteria, and has even seen traditional festivals cancelled or at best delayed - when will we finally say enough is enough?

Make sure to follow our dedicated lifestyle page for much more. If you're interested in Croatia's initiatives when it comes to the environment, give Total Eco Croatia a follow.

Friday, 6 September 2019

Traffic on Adriatic Commercial Lines Grew by 18 Percent in 2018

Traffic on commercial shipping lines operating on the Adriatic sea last year grew by as much as eighteen percent.

As Poslovni Dnevnik/Sasa Paparella writes on the 5th of September, 2019, in recent years, after shipping companies estimated that connecting some of the most popular tourist destinations during the summer months would be profitable even without government support, an important niche of commercial, seasonal lines opened up.

In total, 744,364 passengers were transported on commercial lines on the Adriatic sea in 2018, which marks an encouraging 17.9 percent increase when compared to 2017's figures. This year, the result will be even better as the number of such lines has climbed steadily up to ten.

The lack of state aid is also reflected in the price, and a commercial catamaran ticket between Split and Bol costs 100 kuna, while the subsidised ticket is 55 kuna. In these circumstances, the timetable and fare are determined by the shipping companies themselves, which on regular, national lines is made up by the Coastal Shipping Agency (AOLPP).

The most commercial lines, four of them, are held by Kapetan (Captain) Luka, also known as the Krilo brand from the Krilo Jesenice shipyard. Captain Luka connects Split and Dubrovnik with Brač, Hvar, Korč,ula, Makarska and Mljet with catamarans. They have three catamarans that can accommodate 350 passengers each, and a trimaran, the Wing eclipse, with a capacity of 450 passengers and a speed of up to 43 knots.

Captain Luka also maintains a regular high-speed line, Korčula - Hvar - Split. Their revenue is growing strongly, from 57.8 million kuna in 2017 to 76 million kuna last year. In addition, their profits doubled to 8.8 million kuna.

''We're planning to rejuvenate our fleet with three new ships and introduce some new lines. Seasonal commercial lines are where we started out, and they were almost undefined by the AOLPP rules. This year, we expect an increase of up to 5 percent in terms of our overall business, which is increasingly reducing the share of boat rentals and increasing the share in seasonal line deals,'' Luka Tomić stated.

Two commercial lines are also owned by Jadrolinija, which has modernised itself with Jelena catamarans (403 passenger capacities, speeds up to 40 knots) and Vida (304 passengers, 32 knots).

It was on Jadrolinija's Split-Hvar line that the most passengers were transported last year out of all commercial lines, and from the end of April to the end of October, there were 208,372 passengers transported in total.

Jadrolinija recorded record business results last year, with 951 million kuna in revenue, 100 million kuna more than in 2016. That state-owned shipping company, which has 2,076 employees, remained at 81 million kuna in terms of recorded net profit. Last year, Jadrolinija carried 86 percent of all passengers and 89.4 percent of all vehicles on state lines.

''We carried 12.3 million passengers and 3.1 million vehicles, which is our best traffic ever. Our white fleet, with a capacity of 30,000 passengers and 4,000 vehicles, placed Jadrolinija in the world's top 10 shipping lines for passengers,'' says David Sopta, CEO of Jadrolinija. This year could be even better, as the number of passengers and vehicles carried by that company had increased by 1.5 percent by the end of August.

In addition to Captain Luka and Jadrolinija, Adriatic Commercial Ferries also holds two commercial lines, a company founded just last year specialising in the fast transport of passengers between Split Airport (Resnik) and Split, Bol and Stari Grad. Transport is performed by a distinctive red catamaran with a capacity of 170 passengers and a speed of 35 knots, and the line is branded as the Split express. Owing to that, Split is now connected to its busy airport by a mere 15-minute ride, and Bol now has a connection with Split five times per day.

The director of the Adriatic fast ferries company, Alan Klanac, the longtime president of Jadrolinija's board of directors, says the company carried more than 30,000 passengers by August the 25th, 2019, which he is pleased with, adding that more than 13 million kuna will be invested this season, and there will be the opening of yet another new line.

The co-owners are Nordic HSCO AB from Sweden and Alveus from Rijeka, Croatia. More and more lines are connecting destinations along the Adriatic coast as time goes on, thus doing a better job avoiding traffic jams. One Norwegian company already had the proper licenses for the introduction of a Zadar - Šibenik - Split line this year, but they were unable to find a suitable vessel, so the project was unfortunately delayed.

One commercial line is maintained by Vrgada RPZ, which runs between the island of the same name and Biograd, as well as the Zadar-based G&V line Iadera, with its new seasonal line Rijeka - Krk - Lopar - Novalja - Zadar. Along with this line, the G&V line Iadera also holds three state-owned lines.

In total, there are fifteen concessionaires on the agency's list, several of which maintain only one line. Šibenik City Parking holds a connection between Brodarica and the island of Krapanj, while the line to Biševo, with only 8,000 passengers a year, is maintained by the Komiža Nautical Centre.

Make sure to follow our dedicated travel and lifestyle page for much more on Adriatic sea connections up and down the coast.

Thursday, 5 September 2019

VIDEO: New Unmanned Aircraft for Supervision of Adriatic Now in Function

As Morski writes on the 5th of September, 2019, the launch of a long-range unmanned aerial vehicle system to monitor the security, safety and overall cleanliness of the Croatian Adriatic sea is set to enhance security at sea.

The launch of the new unmanned aerial maritime surveillance system, organised by the naval safety administration of the Croatian Ministry of Maritime Affairs, Transport and Infrastructure, took place at Brač Airport at 14.00, in the presence of the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA), the Armed Forces The Republic of Croatia and the Central coordination for the protection of the rights and interests of the Republic of Croatia at sea, as well as representatives of shipping companies and ports, and various representatives of the scientific and professional community.

The unmanned aerial vehicle, ''Schiebel Camcopter S-100'' consists of a ground control unit and an aircraft with vertical takeoff and flight of up to 100 kilometres. The unmanned aircraft is designed for six hours of autonomy and is equipped with state-of-the-art sensor equipment, which allows for both day and night operation.

The project for the implementation of the unmanned aerial vehicle surveillance system for the Adriatic was realised as part of a comprehensive maritime surveillance project, implemented by EMSA with national authorities responsible for navigation safety and marine protection, and is of particular national and public interest, since the use of this technology will make a significant contribution to strengthening the capacity for operational monitoring at sea by improving the quality, accessibility and efficiency of public services in the navigation safety system.

Namely, the continuous improvement of the level of navigation safety in inland waters, the territorial sea and protected ecological and fishing zones of the Republic of Croatia is among the priority goals of the Ministry of Maritime Affairs, Transport and Infrastructure, which has recognised the importance of using modern technologies in order to improve efficiency and reduce the operational costs of monitoring.

Therefore, the operational testing of long-range, unmanned aerial vehicles is being carried out, ready for action at any time, as part of both regular and extraordinary activities, to protect human lives and property at sea, to prevent and combat pollution, and to respond promptly in the event of maritime accidents, as well as search and rescue missions and other events at sea.

By introducing unmanned aerial vehicles to support safe navigation and the protection of the Adriatic sea from pollution, the Republic of Croatia ranks among the first European Union members to implement this system, the Ministry of Maritime Affairs proudly notes.

Watch the video of the Adriatic sea's new unmanned guardian here:

Make sure to follow our dedicated lifestyle page for much more.

Saturday, 24 August 2019

VIDEO: Sea Lamprey from Depths of Croatian Adriatic Near Mljet

As Morski writes on the 20th of August, 2019, sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) are parasites that live on many species of fish and mammals. These strange creatures spawn once in a lifetime in fresh water, and instead of hooking itself onto a passing fish, this specimen managed to attach itself to the stern of a boat in Croatian waters.

According to Podvodni.hr, the younger sea lampreys remain buried in the relative safety of river silt during the entire first year of its life, later on, it moves down and out to sea. They have several life stages, during their "sea" phase they try to find a victim, from whom they will suck blood. These unlucky ''hosts'' are mostly dolphins, larger fish, and turtles, but boats and ships of course usually do not belong to this group.

This morning, Marin recorded an unusual sight of a sea lamprey near the island of Mljet in southern Dalmatia, the lamprey had somehow managed to latch itself onto the stern of the ship, likely mistakenly. He tried to remove the lamprey and set it back off into the sea but it persistently returned and reattached itself to the stern.

Although these sea lampreys are quite rare in Croatian waters, in places where they're more common, this odd behavior from them is often observed, there are assumptions that lampreys attach themselves to their hosts and become ''hitch hikers'' on their migrations, but they are more likely to keep trying to attach themselves to vessels due to general misjudgment.

They are elongated, smooth and slimy and without a shell. They have two dorsal fins, are a greenish brown to greenish gray colour on the upper side, and pale on the underside. They can also be black marbled.

They can grow up to 3 kilograms in weight and reach around one metre in length.

While not often seen, lampreys live throughout the Croatian Adriatic, although it is found mostly near the mouths of rivers, and in the rivers themselves.

Watch the video here:

Make sure to follow our dedicated lifestyle page for much more.

Saturday, 3 August 2019

EMSA to Strengthen Safety and Protection in Adriatic

ZAGREB, August 3, 2019 - The European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA), whose primary task is to prevent accidents and pollution at sea, will strengthen safety and protection in the Adriatic Sea, its executive director Maja Markovčić Kostelac told Hina in an interview.

As summer is nearing its zenith and thousands of tourists are disembarking on the Croatian cost, EMSA is closely monitoring the situation in the Adriatic Sea.

"We have 17 ships deployed in different areas of Europe to help countries in clean-up operations in the event of pollution. In addition, we have provided countries with anti-pollution equipment such as barriers and dispersants, and we have also been using drones as of late," Markovčić Kostelac said.

A former state secretary at the Croatian Ministry of the Sea, Transport and Infrastructure, she was elected EMSA Executive Director in January, becoming the first Croatian official at the organisation's helm.

"My first task is to put in place a new EMSA development strategy for the next five-year period. That's what I'm working on," Markovčić Kostelac said in her office in Lisbon.

EMSA was established in 2002 after a maritime accident of the Prestige tanker which caused massive pollution of Spain's northern coast. In 1999, the Erika tanker sunk and polluted the coast of France.

"Prevention is now at the highest level. There are fewer accidents and pollution incidents in the European seas," Markovčić Kostelac said and added: "This is the result of the work of all member states, and with EMSA's support a synergy has been achieved in the most critical and expensive operations."

In January this year, 250 containers with chemicals fell off a ship off the coast of the Netherlands, and the most recent major accident occurred in the Bay of Biscay in March when the Grande America tanker sank in French waters, where hazardous substances are still leaking slightly.

Markovčić Kostelac said that southern European countries, including Croatia, were less equipped than northern countries, which was why EMSA was deploying more of its resources to the south.

"Major oil pollution in a sea such as the Adriatic, considering what a clean sea means for economic activity, would be a disaster," the EMSA chief said.

Traffic is increasing in the Adriatic Sea, which is positive for the ports and economic growth, but at the same time it increases the risk of accidents, she noted.

"Croatia relies a lot on EMSA's assistance in ships and equipment, which is why the agency has advertised a new tender for a ship that will be on stand-by somewhere in the Adriatic," she said.

Such a vessel with the necessary clean-up equipment was docked in Trieste and was used in an exercise off the southern Croatian coastal city of Split in May 2018, involving Croatia, Slovenia and Montenegro. The agreement with that ship has been terminated for economic reasons on the owner's part.

Markovčić Kostelac said that the tender for a new ship could be concluded before the end of the year, after which a new exercise would be held in the Adriatic. She said that countries organise exercises and EMSA helps them with equipment.

EMSA has entrusted Croatia with safekeeping rapid-response equipment in the event of sea pollution, which is worth nearly €1 million, and the agency's drones are currently flying from Brač island to monitor vessel traffic. The value of this service is €1.5 million. "This will further strengthen safety in the Adriatic," Markovčić Kostelac underscored.

She said that Croatia has some systems of service digitisation that even more developed European countries do not have. "More than 75 percent of maritime services in Croatia are offered digitally, so the EU can learn a lot from Croatia's experience. Of course, we can learn a lot from others as well."

She also noted that Croatia, along with Italy and Poland, has the largest number of seafarers in proportion to population size. Of the 4 million people in Croatia, nearly 20,000 are seafarers.

"This gives Croatia the right to encourage talks about the social agenda and have its voice heard," Markovčić Kostelac said.

Prevention of pollution at sea is not EMSA's only task. It also gathers information from different sources, such as ships, satellites and drones, processes it and disseminates it to European institutions, including Frontex, member states and their national authorities.

Markovčić Kostelac said that during her five-year term she wanted to strengthen the agency's centre for operations through which information is exchanged and to strengthen the alliance with industry to apply the highest standards to those who live off the sea.

More news about the Adriatic Sea can be found in the Lifestyle section.

Wednesday, 22 May 2019

VIDEO: Watch MORH Drone Footage Over the Adriatic Sea

As Morski writes on the 21st of May, 2019, the new Orbiter 3 is MORH's new means for the country's Homeland Security system, and will be used for by the Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Croatia and the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Croatia.

MORH states that their aircraft will be used in early fire detection, in the control of waterways and roads, support in crisis situations, and for support in the control of the country's borders.

The Orbiter 3 drone weighs 30 kilograms, its flight range is 150 km and it can be in the air for as long as seven hours, and when descending, a parachute is released. Its wingspan is 4.4 metres wide and it can cruise at 130 kilometres per hour.

The unmanned aircraft was first introduced to the public during the Paris Air Show back in 2005. It is made entirely of carbon composite and is powered by an electric motor, in addition it is equipped with an optical and an infrared camera, and data link and navigation systems (GPS and INS).

What is also interesting to note is the fact that the Serbian army acquired ten such Orbiters eleven years ago, In addition to Serbia and Israel, these Orbiter drones are used by Azerbaijan, Finland, Ireland, Mexico, Peru, Poland and Uganda.

Although the Orbiter 3 prototype was first introduced back in 2011, there have been improved versions of its two predecessors (in addition to the camera, a laser sight has also been added), MORH did not publicly disclose the characteristics of the camera itself on this particular version. The manufacturer has rather vaguely written that it boasts a "high definition camera", but whether or not that is in reference to 2019's standards, we don't know.

These drones should also control fishing in the Adriatic sea, and a contract worth 4.88 million euros with the Israeli company Aeronautics was signed by the Minister of Agriculture Tomislav Tolušić back in May 2018.

View MORH's new drone footage here:

Make sure to follow our dedicated lifestyle page for much more.


Thursday, 25 April 2019

Not Proclaiming Exclusive Economic Zone Costing 28 Billion Kuna

ZAGREB, April 25, 2019 – MOST MPs Nikola Grmoja and Tomislav Panenić said on Thursday that Croatia is losing between 170 and 270 million euro each year for not declaring an Exclusive Economic Zone in the Adriatic and that for that reason, it has lost around 3.7 billion euro since 2000.

Grmoja told a press conference that during Wednesday's parliamentary debate on a MOST-sponsored motion for Croatia to declare an EEZ, Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ) whip Branko Bačić admitted that "it was our and the SDP's (Social Democratic Party) mistake not to declare the Exclusive Economic Zone prior to joining the European Union."

"Because of that every year we lost funds equalling the value of one Pelješac bridge," Grmoja said and added that the ruling majority rejected MOST's motion because they did not want to protect Croatia's sea and fishermen.

He recalled that during negotiations to form a coalition with MOST, the HDZ claimed that it was in Croatia's interest to declare an EEZ yet today it does not want to do just that for reasons unknown.

Grmoja further said that during the debate members of the ruling majority presented no arguments as to why the EEZ should not be declared except that Croatia's rights are already protected with the Ecological and Fisheries Protection Zone (ZERP) even though they themselves had previously explained the difference between the two. ZERP encompasses the sea that the zone covers while the EEZ also includes the sea bed as well as the air space above the zone, he said.

Panenić recalled that the government was reluctant even when it came to declaring the ZERP and wondered why it did not want to take what belonged to Croatia, thus ensuring equality and protecting national natural resources.

More Adriatic Sea news can be found in the Lifestyle section.

Monday, 15 April 2019

MOST Proposes Introduction of Exclusive Economic Zone

ZAGREB, April 15, 2019 - The Croatian parliament will probably soon discuss a MOST-sponsored motion for Croatia to declare an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in the Adriatic Sea, the MOST party's secretary-general Nikola Grmoja said in Zagreb on Monday.

An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.

Grmoja said that his party had managed to collect 31 signatures for the motion to be put on the parliament's agenda, adding that other opposition parties have joined this initiative.

He went on to say that the MOST had proposed this topic in mid-February last year, however, Parliament Speaker Gordan Jandroković had refused to add it to the agenda so far.

MOST proposes that Croatia should declare an exclusive economic zone over 24,000 square kilometres.

Grmoja said that his party insisted that Croatia should follow examples set by some other Mediterranean countries, including France, as well Great Britain.

He criticised the government for not sharing the MOST's opinion on the need to more strongly protect the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea.

More news about MOST party’s activities can be found in the Politics section.

Sunday, 10 March 2019

VIDEO: Watch Thick Fog Descend on Palagruža Lighthouse

Palagruža, the Republic of Croatia's most remote lighthouse, can feel like a world all on its own in all types of weather, a rocky paradise under the sun, surrounded by the sparkling Adriatic sea during the warm summer months, and quite the opposite when the seasons turn and the wind blows.

When then the fog and mist descend over Palagruža and the sky turns white, that feeling of total isolation is enough to invoke thoughts of Jack Nicholson's stunning performance all those years ago in Stanley Kubrick's take on Stephen King's book The Shining, a classic tale of an aspiring author slowly losing his mind to isolation.

Croatia's most forbidding area, a far-flung rocky island pushed far away from the mainland, Palagruža isn't really geared up for visits or tourism of any sort, which almost makes this idyllic yet somewhat haunting location more attractive to would-be visitors.

As Morski writes on the 9th of March, 2019, Tomislav Žuvela and his father, upon taking up care of the situation on Palagruža after Vojislav Šajn and Krešimir Tomašić went off on their well deserved break, captured the thick layer of fog which slowly surrounded the largest island of the distant Palagruža archipelago, Vela (or Velika) Palagruža, where a lighthouse was built. Tomislav briefly stated that fog sirens are no longer used there like they once were. Ship crews, in such cases, now rely solely on more reliable, more modern technology.

The fog which slowly engulfed Palagruža is as mysterious as it is beautiful, almost furthering the archipelago's distance from civilisation and creating a sense of isolation that many people simultaneously crave and fear...

Video by Morski HR

If you'd like to watch some drone footage of Palagruža when the skies are clear and the sun is shining, click here. If you've ever wondered what it's like to transport yourself from the heart of Sydney, Australia, and spend one month in this truly bizarre location, find out what it's like to date the lighthouse keeper!

Make sure to follow our dedicated lifestyle page for much more.

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